Apr 15, 2012 , Vladislava Králová

vajecniky.jpg - kopie
vajecniky.jpg - kopie
The ovaries are a part of the female reproductive system. The main ovarian function is the production of gametes, eggs. Another function of the ovaries is to produce hormones that affect the formation of secondary sexual characteristics. Eggs are necessary for the ovarian cycle, so for reproduction. Unfortunately, the ovaries can be affected by various diseases, the most common are cysts, and tumors are no exception.


The ovaries are an important part of the female reproductive system. They are the sexual glands, whose basic task is the production of gametes, eggs and female sex hormones. Eggs are released during sexual maturity ideally once a month. In case of a fusion with the male sex cell, sperm, fertilization occurs, which is the beginning of the development of a new individual. The ovaries may affect unpleasant diseases, like cysts, inflammation and cancer.

Ovary structure

The ovaries are a pair organ that is stored on both sides of the uterus in the pelvis. Their size depends on the age of the woman. Length varies between 3-5 cm, 1.5-3 cm in width and thickness is about 1 cm. The surface is covered by a protective layer, called the embryonic epithelium. Underneath it is a thin layer of tissue. Below, we distinguish the cortex and medulla. The medulla is located in the center of the ovary, blood vessels and nerves run through it, and it is surrounded by the cortex. In the cortex itself the gametes, eggs are located. During juvenility the surface is smooth, but gradually it gets scared due to releasing eggs.

Ovary function

The main function of the ovaries is of course the development, maturation and subsequent release of gametes, eggs. This is a complicated process that takes place after sexual maturation. Ideally, once every 28 days an egg is produced in a container called a follicle. This process is called an ovulation cycle. From a mature follicle a mature egg is released under pressure in the abdomen, where it is captured by the fallopian tubes. This process is called ovulation. A mature egg waits in the fallopian tubes 24 hours for fertilization. The ovaries also produce hormones, estrogens and progestogens. In puberty estrogens stimulate the growth of the sex organs (uterus and vagina) and the development of secondary sexual characteristics, like breast development, characteristic feminine fat and feminine hair. It is important that there is a regular variation of this hormone where its concentration is the highest just before ovulation. It could be said that the function of estrogen during sexual maturation, is preparation for fertilization and subsequent development of the egg. Once the egg is extruded from the ovary into the fallopian tube, estrogen gives the order to prepare the uterus for attaching a fertilized egg and modifies the mucus in the vagina to be thinner and more permeable for male sex cells, sperm. If the egg has been fertilized by a sperm it migrates from the fallopian tube toward the uterus. Right now hormones called progestogens dominate. It could be said that progestogens prepare the sex organs for pregnancy. The uterus is ready to attach and nourish a fertilized egg, the milk gland prepares for breast-feeding and in the ovary the next ovulation is stopped. Progestogens are made from the rest of the protective egg sac or follicle which is after ovulation called the corpus luteum. The main sources of progestogens after fertilization are not the ovaries, but the placenta.

Ovary diseases

From the above mentioned it is clear how important ovaries are. Without them one of the basic human needs could not be ensured, thus preserving the genus. The diseases that affect the ovaries, ovarian cysts are the most common, their inflammation and cancer. Very common are also hormonal disorders.

Ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts are quite common and mainly affect women in their reproductive age. A cyst is a sac or cavity filled with fluid and it most often develops due to the activity of certain hormones. Most cysts develop normally, after some time they disappear and require no treatment. The problem, however, cause large cysts that can oppress surrounding organs and cause pain in the lower abdomen. A big risk is their rupture, which leads to heavy bleeding and may endanger a woman's life. It is therefore recommended cysts larger than 5 cm to be surgically removed.

Ovary inflammation

Ovary inflammation is a serious infectious disease that is more known as pelvic inflammatory disease. It affects not only the ovaries, but also the uterus, fallopian tubes and surrounding structures. Ovary inflammation occurs primarily in young sexually active women and women with many sexual partners. The bacteria that cause ovary inflammation, also cause sexually transmitted diseases, and are transmitted by sexual intercourse. Ovary inflammation is manifested by mild to spasmodic pains in the lower abdomen, during sex, bleeding outside the menstrual period or its extension. It is important to treat ovary inflammation in time and consistently, as it can cause infertility, ectopic pregnancy, internal bleeding and in the worst case, death.

Ovarian cancer

Ovarian tumors are a very dangerous disease, since there are no symptoms for a long time. Ovarian tumors primarily affect women in early menopause, transition, i.e. between 50 and 70 year of life. Symptoms begin to appear at a later stage when the tumor is already large or has spread to nearby organs. The most common symptom of ovarian cancer is pain in the abdomen and pelvis, bloating, nausea, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea, loss of appetite and unexplained weight loss. The treatment of ovarian cancer depends on its nature, that is, whether the tumor is malignant or benign, size, type, degree of disability of the surrounding organs and diseased state. The treatment is most often surgical in combination with chemotherapy that is with aggressive anticancer drugs.

Ovarian diseases should not be underestimated. Therefore, regular visits to your gynecologist are recommended and in the case of suspicious pain in the lower abdomen or any doubts, turn to him immediately.


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March 2, 2016 7:09 PM

Wiktor: Anterior thigh pain might be caused by a<a href="http://ggvqtkm.com"> neacomusrulur</a> injury, or a condition related to the nerves stemming from your lumbar spine. If you have not injured yourself recently, then you could have irritation of your facet joints in your lower back. This can add pressure to other nerves near your hip and can cause upper thigh pain when you twist and turn your back. You might want to stop golfing for a while until you find out the cause and this can also help heal if it is an injury.Another possible cause of pain in your thigh or hip joint when attempting to cross your legs is sciatica. Your sciatic nerve, which runs under your hip and buttocks and into your upper thigh can be irritated when crossing your legs and when you sit in this position for a long time. You could also have a muscle strain. Crossing your legs while having an upper thigh or hip muscle strain can be very painful due to your need to contract these muscles in order to cross your legs. A ruptured ovarian cyst would tend to be a burning, tearing like pain in your lower abdomen where its difficult to stand up.If you are experiencing pain in your thigh muscle or hip joint while attempting to cross your legs, you might want to hold off on performing this movement or sitting in this posture until your pain gets less or your condition heals. Depending on the severity of your pain or the cause of your pain, this period of rest can range from a few days to a few weeks. If the pain does not ease after rest, see your doctor.Take care.

March 2, 2016 1:56 PM

Fauzan: Hi.The surgeon pblarboy left it there because of the size of the cyst, and possibly the type of cyst. I had a large cyst that was to be removed laparscopically, and when he went in to do it, he discovered that it was a dermoid cyst. Dermoid cysts are filled with things like hair-gross. I had to do a laparotomy, because they did not want to run the risk of it rupturing during laparscopic surgery. I was glad for their caution, because as it turned out, the large cyst I had was a mucinous cyst with borderline malignancy. Had they done the laparscopic, all those pre-cancerous cells would have been flying through my body. As for whether it likely indicates cancer, that can't really be answered until they send it to pathology. Cancer is a weird disease, and different for every person. One person may have a tiny cyst that looks to be a normal, functional cyst. If removed, it may be cancer. Another person may have a giant cyst that is nothing at all, but a huge pain. Pathology will biopsy the tissue and determine if there was something there. And, your other question about the reproductive system, you have two ovaries, and as long as you have one working ovary, you can still get pregnant. Good luck.

February 21, 2016 9:35 AM

Akhmad: Is there a type of cyst that forms near female reuipdoctrve organs that contains bone, teeth and hair?I read that there is a type of cyst that forms in the female reuipdoctrve organs (somewhere near where DNA is reproduced) that can contain bones, teeth and/or hair. Is this true? http://nmxerjeq.com [url=http://eaohdei.com]eaohdei[/url] [link=http://bwlajizqk.com]bwlajizqk[/link]

July 19, 2015 12:11 PM

Bintang: I have an ovarian cyst. What type of aitevitcis should i stay away from?I work out on a daily basis, at least i used to before i found out i had a cyst. I havent asked my doctor yet what i should stay away from, and i wont see him for about 2 months. I was wondering what types of aitevitcis will be bad for me. http://xswxfucouip.com [url=http://hepkxtytgdr.com]hepkxtytgdr[/url] [link=http://sdbazojpaj.com]sdbazojpaj[/link]

July 16, 2015 7:28 PM

Agus: Type 1 cyst on kidney what are the risks for <a href="http://hmtyhgtbgjc.com">hanvig</a> it removed?My Dad has a type 1 cyst on his kidney he's suppose to have an operation soon at first I was told there's nothing to worry about and now I'm told there might be possible complications.What are the risks for this type of operation could he die?Yes He's smoker I don't know if it's spread anywhere else first he's going for a colonoscopy before his operation so they'll find out if it spread.Thanks for your helpful answer!!

July 13, 2015 8:30 PM

Zakir: type 1 cyst, is it malignant or bengin? Has it spread to other ares? I really wouldn't worry if I were you. this is a very common surgery, and complications are rare. Just make sure to take great care of the incision so he don't develope a Staph infection. And he should be able to resume normal activity very quickly. But just like my Dr's' say, if it hurts stop doing it, because then you know you're pushing it too much and you don't want to risk rupturing your spleen

July 11, 2015 7:42 PM

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