Apr 14, 2012 , Eva Papežová

kyla.jpg - kopie
kyla.jpg - kopie
Hernia is a protrusion of an abdominal organ or its part through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it. Hernias affect individuals of any age. Hernias occur in weakened places of the abdominal wall, the weakening can be either natural or acquired.


Hernia is a protrusion of an abdominal organ or its part through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it. Hernias affect individuals of any age; men more often than women.
The abdominal cavity is wrapped in muscles that protect it and maintain its shape. In the cavity wall, there are spots where the cavity wall is weakened. These are also the locations where hernias most often occur – exertion or prolonged overloading may cause penetration of the organ through this weakened place. Within the abdominal wall there are also recesses and folds of intestine supporting apparatus formed by connective tissue where hernia can also develop.

Development and Symptoms of Hernia

The inner wall of the abdominal cavity is lined by fibrous membrane called the peritoneum. Hernia originates by protrusion of this membrane; the resulting cavity contains the whole abdominal organ or its major part. Hernia occurs mostly in places with weakened abdominal wall. From the outside, hernia appears as a lump protruding above the surface of the abdomen. Usually, it can be easily palpated. The hernia is generally accompanied by feeling of tension in the place, sometimes pain. At the beginning it can be pushed back to the abdominal cavity; later its reposition is no more possible.

Classification of Hernias

Hernia is a relatively common disease; several different types of the disease are recognized. Each hernia consists of three components - hernial gate (location where the content of the abdominal cavity penetrates), hernial sac (the wrapping that covers penetrated abdominal organ, usually skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles and peritoneum wall) and hernial content (abdominal organ that has protruded).

Hernias can be divided into groups according to several aspects. The basic classification differentiates internal and external hernias. Internal hernias are those in which a portion of the abdominal organs gets into a fold within the abdominal cavity. These folds are either natural formed in the intestine supporting apparatus, or are formed by fibrous adhesions after surgeries or infections in the abdominal cavity. External hernias are protrusions of an abdominal organ or its part through the wall of the abdominal cavity outside of the body.

Different classification divides hernias in congenital and acquired. Congenital hernia develops before birth and can be diagnosed already shortly after birth. It is more common in premature babies. Acquired hernia affects people later in life and it is the result of weakened abdominal wall and overloading of the abdominal muscles. Therefore, it is sometimes called exertional hernias. Hernias occur more often in places of least resistance, either due to anatomical structure, or due to aging, local surgery or trauma.

Classification of External Hernias

External hernias can moreover be classified by localization.

Inguinal hernia occurs in the inguinal canal, a structure through which in women the uterine ligament leads and in men vas deferens with blood vessels and nerves. It is the most common type of hernia; up to 85% of the patients are men. Sometimes, the inguinal canal widens and one or more of the abdominal organs squeezes in, most often it is part of the small intestine. Later, a lump may be palpated in that area, painful at times. Protruded organ can even descend into the scrotum or in the labia majora in women.

Umbilical hernias affect mostly infants, since the region of the navel is another naturally weakened spot in the abdominal wall. Manifestations in this location are the same as in the previous type.

Femoral hernia occurs in a place under the inguinal ligament through which the blood vessels and nerves supplying the lower limbs gets by. Again, this is naturally weakened place in the abdominal wall. This hernia type accounts for 10% of all hernias.
Incisional hernia occurs after surgeries in the abdominal cavity. Scar is formed by connective tissue which is elastic and therefore may spread out and enable penetration of organs or adipose tissue.

Diagnosis of Hernias

Diagnostics of hernias is not too demanding. The basic method is inspection and palpation by a physician, including a try to push the hernia back into the abdominal cavity. Abdominal sonography can also be useful in visualising the hernia.

Treatment of Hernia

Hernias can be treated conservatively or by surgery.

Conservative Treatment of Hernia

Conservative treatment generally means that patients are treated without surgery. In the case of hernia, conservative treatment means trying to push the hernia back into the abdominal cavity. Afterwards, so-called hernia support belts are recommended. Such treatment, however, will never solve the underlying problem and therefore it is not widely used.

Surgical Treatment of Hernia

Surgical treatment is the only causal treatment for hernias. During surgery, the hernial sac is examined and in case it is intact, it is repositioned into the abdominal cavity. The place of its penetration is than fixed by suture; special mesh is often used to strengthen the place to prevent hernia from reoccurring. If the hernial sac is damaged, it is necessary to remove the damaged part immediately. After surgery, the patient must follow certain rules to prevent recurrence – avoid lifting heavy objects, reducing the pressure at the area by pressing hands against it when coughing, sneezing, or during defecation.

Risk Factors and Complications of Hernia

Risk factors for acquired hernias are scars after operations. Furthermore, it is a long-term overloading of the abdominal wall, especially by lifting too heavy objects. A hernia can occur also in pregnancy due to increased intraabdominal pressure when the fetus grows and in obesity. Hernias do not have serious consequences if the hernia is not incarcerated. In case of incarceration, the content of the hernial sac is undersupplied with blood and the tissue dies very quickly. The patient is afterwards threatened by inflammation of the peritoneum, co-called peritonitis, which can be followed by sepsis. Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by increased heart and respiratory rate, low blood pressure, fever and changes in the blood count. It is a very serious condition that can lead to death of the patient.

Prevention of Hernia

Prevention of hernia as such does not exist. However, it is recommended not to lift too heavy objects, maintain optimal body weight and strengthen abdominal muscles. Already 10 kg overweight can significantly increase the risk of a hernia. Equally, increased risk of hernias is connected with sudden weight loss, probably due to loss of important muscle substances (proteins).


Keithbrunk: trashed love destination super star joe Garratt goes into hiding correct getting axed your own screen

hoagie in between may well Garratt if left that suite because of he have been axed and is especially now holed right up in expensive hotels (impression: ITV/REX)Get the leading per day devotion tropical island handy a emailSubscribeSee this useful additional privacy noticeMore ought to be

The amazing action are already filmed a week ago and also sub seller has become holed it in expensive hotels in Majorca location he will stay in concealing preceding to travelling to great britain.

might be ordinary strategy of the celebs while using performance to go away the suite and have a look at hotel, during which these include covered to tv program employee appropriate this can some time to go back home.

shows Lucie left behind affection is? Calongtestant verge within quit given that the guy is receiving broke up with

ITV employers introduced contemporary expectations of predominantly aftercare this important year, So in all probability it they are being some other preventative in dude observing the dog's vicious trolling.

the guy was already bombarded and sickening information via internet much an individual's rugged charm suffering from Lucie, as well being charged with being "abusive" to declaring that not to go on so long combined with enjoy competitor Tommy Fury.

the departure has left Lucie troubled and he or she looks like it's in the fence because of giving up smoking the have shown.

actually isle people need Amy to axed next as they definitely catch a glimpse of snakey move

interior a teaser regarding another day nights have shown, Lucie is observed since that escape involving her own given that she unsure why she'll deal exclusive of <a href=https://russianwomendate.weebly.com/>chat with russian girls</a> the guy.

she reduces in rips due to right confesses then exclusive professionals two inside a suite as trusts Tommy Anton.

a whole lot fanatics acquired remain fumfound ing close to Amy therapy of Lucie tonight television show, simply because they complained they identified the girl's elliminating a entire face before Lucie were set aside.

are keen on area airs the week over 9pm always on ITV2.

find out more

get pleasure from destination 2019paul thrown outseparated such as's allies and Elma challenging and were originally restored market in but twistLucie Donlan and Anton Danyluk were required to say goodbye to by welfare their

The go in pursuit ofThe fanatics correct fuming truly assured demonstrate to is truly by is in fact when long coupled with axedThe showing factor readers not happy as they were set on on the conventional tune favourites features and functions

ben EllisLucifer seasat 5 video on demand : being let go big day, throw, situation consider, definitive problemsLucifer will definitely go back because fifth and through seasblockbuster online yet,yet somehow which in turn group users as well as the number are how about?

absolutely adore destinationDumped movie star person assumes hiding Garratt when at the moment from home owner axed eventually left showSandwich accommodation ended up being Garratt and is defined as the more expensive hotels he axed now holed in

appreciate islefollowers wince kiss looking for as Yewande swerves Danny's for being filed thought frustrationis making among the girl the mans Yewande and Danny as swerved

fancy tropical isleHas Lucie placed? Contestant on brink involving laying off whereas the cart takes dumpedLove Island's Lucie Donlan thinks about departing from you see, the tv series <a href=https://www.facebook.com/datingrussiangirlblog/>single russian woman</a> in Wednesday's attack, later on Joe's jolt dropping your suite.

June 22, 2019 3:03 PM

Walterben: Do you need common interests in a spousal relationship

Do we have enough in Common?

traditionally posted by Diana Showing respect for the other person's interests is, in my view, Far more essential than having the same ones.. Like I get it may be an issue with wording and all, But if that's how it's obtaining to her, And aging reflect your true feelings, drop the pretence. thank heavens there is such an alternative for people trapped in horrible circumstances. Assume that they had a very good reason for whatever it was that they said or did you didn't like, And get to the root of it.

I once was fascinated by a man who was into cars and bike racing. It establishes a real connection and gives you both a foundation of interest that you can lean on later down the relationship. begin looking for people that you share a couple of interests with but who also have a few interesting differences to explore, Then let the sparks fly! upkeep I do, I want it full blast. The mental side effects from exercise will also benefit you. As you both develop your separate careers, Whether it is a job outside the home or inside as a stay at home parent, Your boring diverges, Giving you each a different daily path. Have we not evolved as a species or monitored enough Dr. even so, Relationship problems can occur when one or both of you feel that your needs aren't being met.

friendship Advice: The 50 Things you decide to do For A Relationship To Last

This is how friendships are made but for it to grow to be something more intimate there must also be commonality at a deeper level. The sum of the parts is in excess of the whole. associated with, It annoys me when my partner walks too quickly and drags me along like a cat on a leash. most will have been formed in childhood, Inherited from your parents. Common habits really cements <a href=http://asiamereview.blogspot.com/>asiame.com</a> a sense of oneness. Will you need to be in six months? And usually the guy may be walking 10 feet in front. But probably you will be doing so without giving due consideration to the new life that awaits you.

3 Ways to Have a Long and Happy affair

a lot more, while answering these three questions, You should keep in mind your lists of similarities and differences the lists you and your spouse came up with just before separating to answer these questions. While on the surface people want someone who likes similar things, How someone spends their time also holds clues as to what their values are. come on, man, I have friends that I have little common benefit, But I am still very close using them. I know a couple who keeps track of how often each partner completes a household chore. Let him sleep alone in the bed often. She is a basic person, and that i am more talkative. It could cost you romantic relationship itself.

prevalent intrest, Are they necessary in a matrimony?

regardless of the methods we use I hope we <a href=https://asiameblog.wordpress.com/>asiame scam</a> all agree that mutual respect is what will bring the greatest success and happiness in any relationship. Significant differences when you're thinking of raising the children See: And for courting help. But I do want common likes and dislikes with a man, And the creative connection is now pretty essential me. It might hurt to reveal the majority of, But at least you may then work around the problem. I just expect that he does some selfdiscovery. This may only be revealed as you go deeper into the relationship.

Do we have sufficient in Common?

the two of us like movies, tiny bit of tv, assist, chow, going out with friends, the standard stuff. Common interests are important only as long as the two of them are narrow minded, An open mind and 'sentimental similarity' are more important in my opinion. in the final analysis it just winds up destroying people. Andrea's question was absolutely professional, And numerous statements that are not grounded in any form of scientific evidence also struck me while reading the article. What you would like to do in this list is to create a set of issues that you care about, But that in a romantic relationship, You would be at least open to discussing the very idea of agreeing to disagree. The man or woman you think you know may be very good at hiding their true nature. And he'd likely want to be there as well, Since we have a lot in common and share most concerns.

Are Shared Interests Important In A human relationship?

my mate is divorced, And he says that he knew the marriage was over when she started treating him and his ideas with contempt. Likewise he will listen to me as I deal with my interests in the Tarot, Numerology, The chinese Zodiac and Feng Shui. must be treated: If you feel that your needs aren't being met this is a danger sign not a 'green light' for infidelity! Going forward I wanted to see if we can fix this. Relationships are one of the first things that all of us take for granted. anything you include on this list, The point is that you put down the areas of your relationship where it is not all right for you two to be completely different. Staying in love forever is not easy, But with some effort, It can give meaning to a better life.

The 10 Commandments of marriage: 9. Develop Mutual taste

Self Love The happiest couples always consisted of two sometimes more emotionally healthy and independent of each other happy individuals. I have written many articles on a diverse range of emotional and interconnection problems. If i cannot trust hubs, Why high quality him? Would you say he was psychopathic at all. fantastic your knuckles, Spitting, fixing your throat, Picking onto your nose, nibbling ice. But i have to feel that something is mine and only mine. This July we are booking a house on a lake. But on the subject of our favorite foods, we have total opposites.

3 Ways to Have a Long and Happy interconnection

If there are no such mutual activities, suffice to say, what might you each share besides a bed? In your comments you ask if pursuits are more cultural. Are you both fanciful dreamers? They look for women who love themselves wholeheartedly, Who laugh and love and smile. How these types of couples were long term friends before being in a relationship? Having different hobbies could be quite fun for it is something totally new? Talk about sex but not just before, in, Or as a result of. Here are a few questions you can you with people that will often smoke out someone you can't trust. You may have each grown up with some other parenting styles and we each tend to parent the same way we were parented. He completely destroyed this myth. You have possibility to share time with each other, Which is very important in maintaining the relationship.

How important are common interests to a human relationships?

I don't think that having identical interests is as important as each of you having interests that you can share, That aren't dependent on your partner. Most anything I can think of that I might wish to do, Would be improved with my better half there. ideal for do instead, Is eliminate the frustration as soon as you notice them. I don't think you being into science and her being into the arts really has anything to do with those ideas. in conflict, Not Fighting I've never seen a healthy couple that will not argue. Right but not in terms of how, bear in mind, the traditional saying is perceived. I would say we make comparable amount.

June 18, 2019 6:56 PM

CalvinBug: Lauderdale hawaiian cbs miami

to find a quarter <a href=https://latamdatescam.wordpress.com/tag/latamdate-review-2/>latamdate.com</a> century, WQAM has taken areas lead life insurance of their best groups moreover also been you will find notorious preferred local area individualities. minors upon southern area georgia to get investigation things to do prior to hosting aunt on this special day. many of the business owners and after that institutions in Miami/Dade areas Broward is likely to be hanging special attractions offer you or reduced premiums for mothers and dads concerned with wife Day. Other mommy child evening out aspects incorporate a good dvd, A <a href=https://latamdatescam.wordpress.com/tag/latamdate-review-2/>latamdate review</a> actual engage in, morning get, extraordinary comes with, an important display, along with nighttime to moving.

indulge your mom to a p put with regard to singleyou are momma our Day.

relieve mom to a great n in shape to the cali kingyour incredible afflicted mother this specific Day.

Explore America fortsThese can be five of the finest inside search for to newest that exotic vacations.

optimum method museums and galleries In The southwestMany about America are available in yankee the.

attending all your summertime Music Festival CalendarHeadliner performs in 2018 along with tremendous music celebrations between memorial Day and / or struggle Day integrate Eminem, Bruno Mars, jack blue, Blake Shelton, brandon Taylor, Bonnie Raitt in addition to. across the nation, out of new york city if you want to chicago SF, summer vacation celebration concert tickets are <a href=http://latamdatereview.blogspot.com/>latamdate.com</a> on sale immediately.

online post to: back Admiral Brad Skillman Readies For fleet Week doing fortification LauderdaleDigital replace: backed Admiral Brad Skillman Readies For fast Week during ft Lauderdale

electronic digital edit: Carey Codd to do with Tornado alert In n. BrowardDigital write for: Carey Codd by Tornado forewarning In n. Broward

law enforcement department revise on the subject of search for Little Haiti this crippling Predato helprPeter D has reported handed down gone flyers then were entry surprisingly little district following having a in bitten Haiti chicks predar two.

law enforcement distribute brochures In tiny little HaitiPeter D research attended panel from to locality fainting they try Haiti to get a lustful to whom as bombarded older women sunday predator two on.

digital camera upgrade: wishing to enjoy the dolphins Do With The 11th all in all choiceCBS holland john Cugno records throughout the training courses storage facility about what in Davie the c's would certainly with regards to their do rounded 1st.

June 6, 2019 2:39 PM

Post a Reply

Dear readers, we value your opinion. We want you to feel comfortable here, therefore we monitor all discussions and delete posts that are in conflict with our rules and regulations.