Treatment of female infertility

Apr 15, 2012 , Veronika Fejfarová

lecba-zenske-neplodnosti.jpg - kopie
lecba-zenske-neplodnosti.jpg - kopie
Treatment of female infertility depends on the underlying cause. Infertility caused by an imbalance of hormones can be solved with the administration of medicaments that induce regular ovulation. Adhesions in the fallopian tubes or cysts can be treated surgically. However, if previous treatments failed or are not possible, methods of assisted reproduction are performed, i.e. in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic injection and intrauterine insemination.

Treatment of female infertility

Infertility can be described as the inability to conceive a child during regular unprotected sexual intercourse which lasts more than a year, some experts say more the two years. Treatment of female infertility depends on the underlying cause. For female infertility is responsible a number of causations including hormonal disorder, ovarian disorder, fallopian tubes disorder, endometriosis, uterine abnormalities and disorders, developmental malformations of the genitals, vaginal inflammation, impaired immune function and psychological influences. In addition, there are also known factors that influence fertility and these are age, a negative effects of environment, smoking, alcohol, drugs, sexual activity, congenital defects, acquired diseases and nutrition. In section below, we take a closer look at treatment of the most common causes of female infertility.

Female fertility

For female fertility is important regular ovulation in which is once a month during the menstrual cycle released an egg from the ovaries. This process is regulated and controlled by hormones. There is many of the important ones. In the hypothalamus, i.e. the part of  brain, is formed gonadotropin. It is a hormone that monitors the release of other hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), from another part of the brain called the pituitary gland. These hormones are through blood spread in the body and affect the ovaries. In the ovaries under the influence of active substances are also created other hormones, namely oestrogen and progesterone. All of these hormones have essential task in reproduction , i.e. to ensure that in the ovary every month matures the egg capable of fertilization, and the female sexual organs will be ready to receive sperm and nidate fertilized egg. The hormones influence the composition of mucus which is otherwise impenetrable to sperm, and also the quality of uterus lining.

Treatment of hormonal imbalance

Since the process that ensures women's fertility is so complex, there is a chance of possible error in its regulation. Fortunately, we have today an option to make ovulation regular. Therefore, the first step in the treatment of female infertility is to achieve natural level of the hormones. Firstly, we try to influence hormone in the first place, i.e. gonadotropin. Its high or low levels can cause that the other hormones are not secreted properly, and thus the egg can not mature. We can support the release of gonadotropin with drug called clomiphene citrate. After this treatment, most of the women get pregnant spontaneously. But if not, there is an another step in treatment. And that is the administration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) which are naturally released by the pituitary gland. These acts directly on the ovaries and affects the maturation of eggs. 

Surgical treatment of female infertility

Female infertility can be also caused by fallopian tubes obstruction due to which are sperms not able to reach the egg, or the fertilized egg can not get to the uterus. One of the causations are also adhesions between the organs of lower abdomen which arise due to long term inflammation or surgery. There is a possible surgical treatment of these adhesions. In simple surgery are adhesions disintegrated and at their places are used anti-adhesive materials, so this situation will not repeat. Physicians may also try to remove the blockage of fallopian tubes. Surgically are also treated tumours of ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus, i.e. tumours that can have the negative effect on fertility. Endometriosis or lining that is outside the uterus, most commonly on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and bladder, is also treated surgically. This mucous membrane, as well as the lining of the uterus is under the influence of hormones, and during menstrual periods occurs bleeding which progressively leads to cicatrisation in the place of endometriosis and adhesions.

Risk factors for female infertility

In the treatment of female infertility is essential to eliminate all adverse factors that affect female fertility. It is important for the woman to have an ideal weight. Overweight or, conversely, malnutrition leads to defects in ovulation and thus infertility. Smoking, alcohol and drugs have the negative effect on fertility. Furthermore, the important risk factor is age. With increasing age the ability of woman to get pregnant lowers and the risk of complications is higher. It is reported that the optimal age to conceive is about 25 years. Female infertility is also affected by mental imbalance. In some cases, the cause of infertility is not diagnosed and only psychotherapy will help the woman to get pregnant. It is also necessary to visit your doctor regularly who makes preventive examinations. He can diagnose, for example, diabetes or hypofunctioning thyroid gland which may be causation of female infertility. It is essential to treat gynaecological infections and sexually transmitted diseases in time.

Methods of assisted reproduction

If after all these steps the woman do not get naturally pregnant, methods of assisted reproduction are performed. These methods include intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The simplest process is intrauterine insemination (IUI) in which is the partner's sperm transferred into the woman's uterus, and thus route of sperms is shortened and the risk of death before they reach the egg is lowered. Another option is in vitro fertilization (IVF) in which is the egg and sperm harvested and they are fertilized under the microscope. Afterwards is the fertilized egg returned into the uterus. Even if this method fails, there is a possibility to use another method called intracytoplasmic injection in which is under the microscope applied only one healthy sperm with a thin needle directly into the egg. The created embryo is returned into the uterus where it can naturally develop.

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