Treatment of diabetes type 2
Treatment of diabetes type 2
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is quite a serious problem in today's society. It occurs mostly in the elderly, which have the typical risk factors such as obesity, excess of caloric meals and lack of exercise. In such people insulin resistance develops when the body tissues are not able to adequately respond to the hormone insulin, which consequently increases blood sugar, called glycemic index. But there are also problems with the processing of fats and proteins, which over time leads to irreversible organ damage.
Causes of diabetes type 2
The nature of diabetes emergence is a relative lack of insulin, a hormone that is responsible for the transfer of glucose from the blood into cells. Unlike in diabetes type 1 the production of insulin in the beta cells is intact, but the rhythm of secretion of this hormone is disturbed, especially after eating. Also in diabetes type 2 is present the so-called insulin resistance, when the sensitivity of tissues to insulin is reduced. Therefore, the blood glucose increases leading to so-called hyperglycemia. The cause of this condition is not fully understood but a crucial role has genetics, improper lifestyle, lack of exercise, obesity and smoking.
Symptoms of diabetes type 2
Diabetes type 2 can be initially asymptomatic and therefore can be discovered accidentally during blood analysis. Generally the symptoms of diabetes include intensified thirst, high fluid intake and frequent urination. It is due to elevated blood sugar that binds water and gets it into the urine. This leads to progressive dehydration of the patient and is accompanied with tiredness and weakness. Further symptoms of diabetes include loss of appetite with subsequent weight loss, vision disorders, or tingling in different parts of the body.
Complications of diabetes type 2
A very serious complication of diabetes type 2 is hyperglycemic coma, which is characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood, dehydration, renal dysfunction and altered consciousness. However this complication begins as weakness, thirst and frequent urination. Since there are also neurological symptoms and impaired consciousness, this condition can be easily confused with a stroke. Hypoglycemic coma is the opposite of the previous complication and arises when glucose levels drop below the bottom threshold. It is manifested with reduced performance, weakness, visual disturbances, or even heart palpitations, tremors, sweating, but also the feeling of hunger.
Among the chronic complications of diabetes type 2 belongs microangiopathy, which is the damage of small arteries and therefore also organs such as the kidneys, retinas of the eyes and the nervous tissue. The kidneys gradually lose their function and the patient's condition can result in dialysis, i.e. replacement with an artificial kidney. Damage of the retina, known as diabetic retinopathy, leads to blurred vision and in the final stages to blindness. Diabetic neuropathy, i.e. damaged nerves, affects most often first the lower and upper extremities. This is like feelings of trembling, tingling, burning, but also pain. Affected can be also the nerves of the spinal cord and organs, which is manifested by abdominal pain and diarrhea.
Another major complication of diabetes mellitus type 2 is called macroangiopathy, which is the damage of large blood vessels by atherosclerotic process, thus popularly known as hardening of the arteries. This process is significantly accelerated in diabetics. These complications often lead to death of patients with diabetes, as ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and stroke develops. In all cases there is lack of blood flow to the tissues. In the lower limbs easily form venous ulcers with possible progression to gangrene and often leading to leg amputation.
Treatment of diabetes type 2
Treatment of type 2 diabetes is always combined. This means that the simultaneous combination of several modalities is necessary, since only in this way can be achieved the maintaining of appropriate blood glucose levels and thus preventing possible complications. Treatment of type 2 diabetes involves dietary measures, oral administration of antidiabetics and also insulin application.
Dietary measures in the treatment of diabetes type 2
At the beginning of treatment of diabetes type 2, the focus is primarily on dietary measures, weight reduction and regular sport activities. In most cases obesity is the main cause of the disease; therefore ideally it should be completely cured. The diabetic diet is based on the distribution of consumed food into several smaller portions throughout the day and especially the amount of sugar and fat is limited. The daily caloric intake of carbohydrates should be 50-60%, fats a maximum of 30%, and proteins 10-20%. In adults are commonly used several dietary regimes containing 175 g, 225 g and 275 g of carbohydrates per day, which of course is adjusted to the needs of individual patients.
Pharmacotherapy of diabetes type 2
However, not always are lifestyle measures sufficient to improve the course of the disease and therefore, such patients need appropriate medication. These are especially the so-called oral antidiabetics. Their mechanisms of effect are different. One group of antidiabetic agents increases insulin secretion from the pancreas, some reduce the absorption of glucose from the intestine, and some increase the sensitivity of cells to insulin. All are dependent on the preserved ability of the pancreas to form insulin. Therefore it is not possible to use these drugs for type 1 diabetes where the production of insulin in the body is impaired. The dosage of individual drugs varies but usually are used 1-3 doses per day, usually about half an hour before a meal.
Application of insulin in diabetes type 2
Unfortunately, in some cases the production of insulin in diabetics type 2 is insufficient to maintain the ideal blood glucose levels even though two antidiabetics are combined, and therefore insulin injections are necessary. During its regular application it is necessary to further ensure monitoring of body weight, as it tends to increase.
Monitoring of blood sugar levels in treatment of diabetes type 2
For continuous monitoring of blood glucose, and thus the effectiveness of treatment for type 2 diabetes, patients have a device called a glucometer. Using one drop of blood glucose levels are known in a few seconds. Ideally it is used before each meal or in a situation where the patient is not sure if everything is in order. It is important to avoid particularly hypoglycemia when blood glucose levels are too low. Such a condition can be very dangerous. In the case of hypoglycemia are the ideal first aid sweet beverages that are commonly strongly not recommended for diabetics.
Aims of treatment of diabetes type 2
The main aim of treatment of diabetes type 2 is maintaining blood glucose levels within the recommended range, thereby greatly reducing the risk of complications. Every diabetic should note that the recommended regime is not significantly different from the healthy lifestyle that is recommended for all people who want to preserve their health for the longest part of their life. A sufficient reward for effort and determination to not let the illness win is then no further health impairment and the ability to live happily for many years.