Treatment of diabetes type 1

Apr 14, 2012 , Zuzana Boučková

lecba-diabetu-i.-typu.jpg - kopie
lecba-diabetu-i.-typu.jpg - kopie
Treatment of diabetes type 1 is based on insulin injections. Treatment of diabetes type 1 differs between patients in the amount and type of administered insulin. Injection of insulin for the treatment of type 1 diabetes is performed by injection pens or special pumps.

Treatment of diabetes type 1

Diabetes type 1 is nowadays considered as a civilization disease that primarily affects developed countries. This type of diabetes occurs frequently in children, adolescents and young adults. Due to the fact that the main problem of diabetes type 1 is partial or complete lack of insulin, a pancreatic hormone, then the main aim of the treatment is the completion of this hormone into the patient's body. Without it, it would be impossible to maintain blood sugar levels within a normal range, which would gradually cause serious health problems. The amount and type of insulin for different patients can vary considerably.

Causes of diabetes type 1

Diabetes type 1 is considered an autoimmune disease, since the cells of the immune system turn against the body's own cells. These are the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas, which are responsible for insulin production. This hormone is essential for the regulation of glucose, sugar, in the blood. Insulin promotes the transport of glucose from the blood into cells and thus imposes sugar and stores energy. Since the white cells destroy the cells of the pancreas there is an insulin deficiency and thereby increased blood glucose levels, the so-called glycemic index.

Symptoms of diabetes type 1

Typical symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 1 are fatigue, inefficiency, loss of appetite, weight loss, excessive drinking and frequent urination. This is due to the fact that sugar binds water and gets into the urine and thus leads to dehydration of the patient. Also tingling sensations in various parts of the body, blurred vision and in more advanced stages vomiting can occur. Diabetes mellitus type 1 can sometimes be manifested as severe abdominal pain, which may be confused with acute abdominal conditions. In more advanced stages of diabetes a life-threatening condition can occur - hyperglycemic coma. The patient becomes unconscious, breaths deeply and from the mouth can be sensed a typical odor of acetone. Diabetes mellitus type 1 is often discovered by accident in preventive blood analysis.

Treatment of diabetes type 1

Treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 is very difficult and complicated. However, the patient must remember that this disease must be treated for life. Treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 consists of dietary measures and lifelong insulin injection, since this hormone can not be produced.

Treatment of diabetes type 1 and application of insulin

Application of insulin in the treatment of type 1 diabetes is absolutely necessary. Application of this hormone may be in the form of a typical syringe made for insulin or insulin pens.

Insulin injections are administered into the skin at predetermined locations, i.e. arm, thigh, abdomen or buttocks. Used needles are very short and thin, therefore, the application is essentially painless. Some patients take these injections once or twice a day, but intense treatments are applied 4 times per day. The administration of the doses is then typically adapted to eating, before breakfast, lunch and dinner. This is due to the fact that incoming sugars need to be processed quickly. One dose of insulin is also applied at night when it is needed to maintain in the blood at least a basic level of insulin. This is why the insulin preparations differ according to the onset of effect and total duration.

Nowadays, patients do not use conventional syringes, but the so-called insulin pens, which include a removable ampoule with the medicine, which significantly facilitate not only the application itself, but also transportation, maintaining sterility, and are more resistant to mechanical damage.

In addition to insulin pens also exist insulin pumps, which are digital devices, from which leads a plastic tube whose end is introduced into the skin all day. These devices mimic a little better the normal insulin regime of a healthy pancreas, as it allows the continuous flow of the hormone into the body. Usually it is suggested rather to those patients who are unable to have their disease under control with the help of conventional pens.

Treatment of diabetes type 1 and lifestyle

However, successful treatment of type 1 diabetes lies not only in the use of insulin, but also in respect of a daily routine, a diet with a predetermined amount of carbohydrates, and also in sport activities. Each patient receives from his doctor a so-called glucometer, which is a device used for regular monitoring of blood glucose. It makes it possible to respond immediately to its increase, which is called hyperglycemia, by increasing the insulin dose. However, the situation can be decreased levels of glucose leading to hypoglycemia. In most cases, diabetics at such a moment know that something is going on as appear typical feelings of weakness, headache, cold sweat, mild confusion, clumsiness and some more. Therefore diabetics should carry a lump of sugar or a sweet with them, so they can eat it in the case of hypoglycemia and increase blood sugar levels. However, it is dangerous when a diabetic does not recognize the problem, which may result in lose of consciousness and he may get into a life-threatening condition.


To achieve an ideal balance of food intake and insulin is not always easy for patients. For many, it is very difficult to adapt to the regime, where there is a relatively small time interval for the consumption of food and insulin injection, and especially to respect the daily intake of carbohydrates. It is up to each individual whether he can adapt or not. But if his condition is carefully managed, its progress can be relatively painless.


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