Operations of the stomach

Jul 10, 2012 , Ondřej Komín

operace-zaludku.jpg - kopie
operace-zaludku.jpg - kopie
Operations of the stomach are fairly frequent surgical interventions that are performed in diseases of stomach which can not be cured by conservative or endoscopic methods. Stomach surgery can be performed laparoscopically or in traditional open way. Operation is chosen in a number of diseases and these operations have also some risks like any other surgeries.

Operations of the stomach

Many diseases of the stomach are treated conservatively. This means that the doctor chooses the medications and treatments that lead to the elimination of causes of disease. In this case, gastric surgery is not necessary. However, in some diseases is surgery essential. Stomach surgery is performed under anesthesia. This means that the needle, i.e. cannula, will be introduced into vein though which the doctor will apply anaesthetic. After the accession of effects is patient asleep and does not feel any pain. When surgeons complete surgery the patient wakes up again.

Types of stomach surgery

Operations of the stomach can be divided into interventions by their scale, when the entire stomach is left in the patient and only local operation is performed. This type of operation is used in gastric ulcer disease, small benign tumour or in repair of poorly developed organ. The second type of interventions are such operations in which impairment of the stomach is so extensive that there must be taken part or even the entire stomach. We are then talking about resection operations. We can also choose between laparoscopic and classical method so-called open surgery.

Laparoscopic gastric surgery

The stomach is relatively easily accessible compared with other organs of the abdominal cavity. Nowadays, in operations is used an instrument called a laparoscope. It is a gentle method in which surgeon penetrates into the abdominal cavity with small incisions. Abdominal cavity is filled with gas what increases the operational space and ensures transparency of surrounding organs. The laparoscope is equipped with scalpel, tweezers, and other special instruments and with camera which image on monitor is observed by surgeon. The surgeon has a perfect view of the situation in abdominal cavity. This method can not be used for all types of operations. The doctors decide what is the best solution for patient.

Open surgeries of the stomach

Classic open surgery of the stomach is an older method that has been used since the beginning of surgical interventions. This method is based on varying cut through the abdominal wall called laparotomy, opening the wound and subsequent surgery of the organ. The advantage is that the doctor has greater visibility in the surgical wound and has the possibility of even more extensive surgery. The disadvantage is a longer time of recovery and it is stated that in this type of surgery is a greater risk of infection.

Surgery for stomach cancer

The most common operations include stomach surgery which aims on the removal of tumour. Benign tumour is usually sharply bounded up against the wall of stomach. Therefore, it may be extirpated and the residue of healthy tissue remains untouched. In the case of cancer is situation more complicated. The tumour is aggressive and grows scattered into the wall of stomach. In such situation it is necessary to remove the entire damaged section of stomach and "shrink" it by resected size, in the worst case it is required to completely remove the stomach. Surgeon staples the healthy rest of stomach and its function remains unchanged. If the stomach must be taken out completely, the surgeon creates a refund from part of the intestine. Such formation assumes only one gastric function which is the storage of food. These types of operations are performed laparoscopically.

Surgery for stomach ulcers

In addition to tumours are also ulcers operated which treatment does not worked well, or ulcers in which is suspect of possible transformation into malignant tumours. In the most cases are gastric ulcers treated conservatively with medication. However, if it comes to the sudden rupture of ulcer, there is a risk of massive bleeding into the abdominal cavity, what is life threatening condition. Therefore, the operation is the only and necessary solution. The surgeon must perform the removal of damaged tissue and connect the rest.

Surgery for stomach polyps

Other formations that require surgery are polyps. These are mucosal protrusions above the mucosa. Their removal can be done through an endoscope, device implemented into the stomach through the mouth and oesophagus. This device except for light, camera, allows the use of tweezers and other tools. Polyps may be a tumorous, inflammatory or so-called hamartomas. These are formations similar to tumour arising from development errors. Polyps are usually asymptomatic and we come to them just during endoscopic examination. However, if symptoms are present, then it is a loss of appetite, nausea, belching, feeling of fullness, and sometimes bleeding.

Surgery for congenital pyloric stenosis

Congenital pyloric stenosis is congenital narrowing of the sphincter which is located at the border of  stomach and initial part of the small intestine, called duodenum. The cause of this disease is unknown but there is assumed hereditary predisposition. As it is a congenital disease which affects newborns since 2nd week of age. Excessive constriction of the sphincter prevents movement of chyme from the stomach into the intestine and most dominant symptom is vomiting. Therefore, the solution is often surgical cut of muscle fibres.

Complications of gastric surgeries

Surgical interventions on the stomach are great burden for cardiovascular system. In rare cases can occur complications which include bleeding, wound infection, bowel disorders, impaired healing of gastric wall, inflammation and the formation of deep vein incisional hernia. Some complications such as rupture or severe bleeding may require corrective surgery, called revision. Your doctor will inform you about possible occurrence of these complications.

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