Prevention of infertility
Prevention of infertility
Infertility in the United States affects 15% of couples. Both sexes are yet involved in it equally. Approximately 8% of the problem is related to the man. The other 37% is related to the women. And the 35% is traced to both partners. In about 5% of couples, the cause of the infertility cannot be traced to specific factors in either partner. Male fertility affects primarily the quality and quantity of sperms. The sperms are formed continuously from puberty until the end of life, so men are not limited by age to which should they become a father. However, in the older age it can come to various defects that can be transmitted to offspring. Female fertility is affected by the quality and quantity of egg cells. They do not form throughout the life as in men, their maximum amount is already determined at birth. Amount of egg cells are diminishing and their quality is decreasing over the live time. For example, twenty years old woman that has sexual intercourse regularly has approximately 25% chance to get pregnant in one menstrual cycle. While for women between 25 to 35 years ago, this probability decreases to 16%. After 40 year is the probability of getting pregnant only 5%.
Prevention of infertility in women
The best prevention of infertility is to conceive and give birth to a child in time. As already mentioned, the chances of pregnancy decrease with age. A major role in fertility of women has also a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, it is important to watch the weight. Obesity is among the risk factors of infertility in the front line. The amount of obese women in our population is still growing. Obesity is not only risky in terms of pregnancy but also in terms of high blood pressure, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Weight loss is one of the main factors for successful treatment. Malnutrition also contributes to infertility. In the case of insufficient amount of subcutaneous fat in malnourished women it do not come to ovulation or release of an egg cell in the middle of menstrual cycle. It is ideal to keep your BMI (body mass index) between 20 to 25. Its calculation is easy. Just the weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (body weight in kg / body height2 in m).
Smoking plays also a role in the prevention of infertility. If both partners smoke, their chances of getting pregnant drops to less than 3 times. For women, it is also important to care about overall health. Known risk factor for infertility is the number of men with who the woman had sexual intercourse during her life. This increases the risk of infection with chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and AIDS. It is important to treat in time any gynaecological infection and other diseases such as thyroid disorder, diabetes and infections. For these reasons it is necessary to have regular preventive medical examinations and comply with specified treatment.
Prevention of infertility in men
Infertility in men can be prevented in several ways. In early childhood of boys it is necessary to watch testicular descent. If the descent is not correct, it is necessary to deal with this situation in a timely manner. When testes do not descend into the scrotum or leathery pouch under the penis and they stop during their way down, for example, in the abdomen, it comes to their heating and impairment. Testicles are designed for the production of sperms and for their proper functionality is needed temperature of about 2 degrees lower. Therefore, testicles are naturally located in the scrotum and not in the body. For this reason it is also important to wear not so tight underwear, preferably shorts, while tight boxers or briefs are inappropriate. Men should also avoid frequent saunas or showering and bathing in hot water. Alcohol and other recreational drugs also impairs the quality of sperms because they are for them toxic. It is also important to prevent various infections. Infertility can be also caused by sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and mumps, but fortunately there is a vaccination against them and they are not so widespread in the population. Various vitamins that act as antioxidants and improve quality of sperms are recommended, such as vitamin C, vitamin E and folic acid. These are naturally contained in fruit and vegetables. Regarding to systemic diseases, the same rules apply here as for women. It is essential to compensate all diseases and regularly visit the general practitioner.
Advice for couples
And what can the couple do if they try for a child in order to precede infertility? They should live a healthy lifestyle, stress-free, watch a reasonable weight, limit alcohol, quit smoking and have regular unprotected sex 2 - 3 times a week. This leads to the improved quality of sperms and increase the chances of conception. If you're trying to have a baby and so far it does not work, there is no need to worry, in the majority of couples it do not come to pregnancy right away. However, it is good to talk about it in time with your doctor, whether practical or gynaecological. The doctor recommends appropriate testing and take steps to correct possible infertility.