Ovarian inflammation is a popular term that means inflammation of the ovaries or also pelvic inflammatory disease. The inflammation affects multiple organs in the pelvis, including the uterus, the endometrium, fallopian tubes, ovaries and possibly the abdominal wall or the peritoneum. Ovarian inflammation is most often caused by bacteria that cause sexually transmitted diseases. A cold or direct coldness does not cause ovarian inflammation, but they are a risk factor. The cold weakens the body, which makes it easier to undergo infection.
The ovaries are an important part of the female reproductive system. It is a pair gonad that forms the female gametes, or eggs and female sex hormones, estrogens and progestogens. The ovaries are located in the pelvis on both sides of the uterus. In their close proximity are the fallopian tubes, which approach to the ovaries during ovulation to capture the released egg. Female ovulation is the moment when a mature egg leaves the ovary and is ready for fertilization, by male gametes, sperm. A fertilized egg can then develop in the environment of the uterus in to a human being. If the egg is not fertilized, the egg disappears.
Causes of ovarian inflammation
The most common causes of ovarian inflammation are two bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea (cause of gonorrhea). These bacteria are sexually transmitted. The infection spreads upwards from the cervix in to the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries and also might into the peritoneum or the abdominal wall. The risk factors of ovarian inflammation are many sexual partners and unprotected sex without condoms. As already mentioned cold supports the development of ovarian inflammation, and therefore we should avoid sitting on the cold ground or wearing short shirts in cold weather.
Symptoms of ovarian inflammation
A typical symptom of ovarian inflammation is a mild to severe spasmodic pain in the lower abdomen. Sometimes there is pain during sexual intercourse, which may be associated with bleeding, as well as pain during urination, yellowish smelly discharge or prolonged menstruation. The general symptoms are sometimes high temperature, fever, nausea and vomiting. If any suspicion or presence of these symptoms, please seek your doctor as soon as possible. It is important to start treating ovarian inflammation early and thoroughly. When delayed or inadequate treatment, there is a risk of complications, which include inflammatory adhesions, ovarian cysts, tubo-ovarian abscess or ovarian torsion or rotation. By abscess is meant a cavity filled with pus. Due to inflammatory adhesions, problems associated with blocked fallopian tubes and emptying urine or stool develop. If the fallopian tubes are blocked, there is an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy or partial or complete infertility.
Diagnosis of ovarian inflammation
Early diagnosis and immediate treatment of ovarian inflammation is very important, otherwise there is a risk of developing the already mentioned complications. The doctor performs gynecological, laboratory and possibly ultrasound examination. During gynecological examination cervical pain, pain of the lower abdomen and ovaries is detected. It is important to swap a sample from the cervix. The sample is then sent to a laboratory for determination of the inflammatory agents. The sensitivity of bacterial pathogens to antibiotics is also investigated. Furthermore enlarged lymph nodes in the groin area are investigated. Patient's blood samples are analyzed in the laboratory, which again confirms an ongoing inflammation in the body. Furthermore, urine can be examined for infections of the urinary tract and kidney and the doctor may also perform tests for other STDs, including syphilis and HIV. During ultrasound examination the doctor rather looks for complications of the ovarian inflammation.
Treatment of ovarian inflammation
The treatment of ovarian inflammation is based on the administration of antibiotics. Antibiotics are chosen so they are effective on both types of bacteria. Alternatively, the treatment is adjusted according to the detected sensitivity. It is important to always use up a full dose of the antibiotics and to continue treatment even when the symptoms disappear, otherwise the disease may return. Bed rest and enough intake of fluids is also recommended. Since ovarian inflammation in the early stages is very painful, painkillers are used. Treatment of both sexual partners is necessary to prevent transmission of the infection. In the case of inflammatory adhesions, abscesses or larger cysts surgical removal is performed. The most frequently used method is laparoscopic surgery. During laparoscopy the doctor performs a few small holes in the abdomen, through which are put tools, a light source and a camera attached to a television screen on which the doctor monitors the removal of these complications.
Prevention of ovarian inflammation
Prevention of ovarian inflammation consists mainly in reducing the likelihood of sexually transmitted infections. It is mainly the use of barrier contraception, a condom. Also a good prevention is the reduction of sexual partners, especially the random ones. It is important to emphasize that if you feel pain in your lower abdomen, you must seek your gynecologist. Please do not underestimate ovarian inflammation, as they can have serious consequences.