Infertility in men
Infertility in men
Infertility can be described as the inability to conceive a child during regular unprotected sexual intercourse which lasts more than a year. Infertility of couple is in up to 50% problem of men. The most common cause of infertility is low sperm count and its quality. Experts agree with that the factors that affect the quality of sperms are contaminated environment, smoking, alcohol, stress, unhealthy lifestyle and tight underwear.
To fertilize an human ovum is necessary sufficient number of sperms and their good quality. The path from the cervix to the fallopian tubes which must sperms overcome to reach the ovum is relatively long. Therefore, not all of sperms get to the ovum. Naturally, there is around ten millions of sperms released during ejaculation or man's emission of semen and so the chances of fertilization are increased. In man are sperms formed in the testes, continuously from puberty until the end of life. However, the quality and quantity of sperms changes during the life and depends on surrounding conditions. Several conditions must be met for the proper maturation of sperms. There should be an exact regulation in production of sperms which is provided by hormones formed in the brain. It is also necessary to protect tissue in the testes in which sperms are formed from any damage, and finally there should be a clear way for sperms when they leave the testicle. It is a complicated process which disruption at any level can be the cause of infertility in men.
Hormonal causes of infertility in men
As already stated, the causation of infertility in men may be insufficient regulation of the sperm production hormones. The part of the brain called the pituitary gland is responsible for creation of these hormones. This gland can be damaged by several mechanisms. It can be oppressed by expansive processes such as small tumours which should not occur in any other case then in infertility, or its function is impaired due to improper development resulting from genetic defects. A special situation is the cause of infertility in athletes who used anabolic steroids. By intake of these hormones which should be normally formed in organism, it came to blockage of their formation in the body. Therefore, these athletes had increased fertility during the use of anabolic drugs but after the withdrawal the fertility drastically decreased and often had not returned.
Another cause of infertility in men is the failure of tissue in testicle in which sperms are formed. These tissues are very sensitive to environmental influences, and therefore they are negatively affected by smoking, alcohol, drugs, various medications and also higher temperature. Necessary temperature for proper development of sperms is about two degrees lower than normal temperature of the body. For that reason are the testes stored in the scrotum, i.e. leathery pouch under the man's penis. The problem may occur in early childhood, when the testicles do not naturally descend into the scrotum and remain in the abdominal cavity, where they are damaged by higher temperature. Various infections can also have a negative effect on these tissues. It is necessary to avoid risky sexual intercourse in which could lead to transmission of STDs. Another problem is varicocele. Varicocele is a condition in which the veins of scrotum multiply, abnormally enlarge and the testicles are oppressed by them. This affects the blood flow from the testes so the blood is not drained properly and the testes are overheated, as mentioned above, higher temperature impairs their function and cause infertility in men. Various testicular injuries are also risky. From one point of view, the testes and brain are exceptional in the body. They are separated from the barrier of human immune system because the immune system can easily identify them as foreign and cause damage to them. These problems are that accidents in which it comes to impairment of this natural barrier and to inflammation of the testicles.
Erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory problems
For proper fertilization is also unimpaired ejaculation and erection. These are among the basic functions of penis. The penis contains erectile bodies which fill with blood during arousal and swell. Thanks to this the penis erects, hardens and is ready for sexual intercourse. If a man for a long time, at least six months, is unable to get an erection or maintain it long enough to allow a sufficiently long sexual intercourse, we talk about erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is often conditioned by vascular disease or psychological effects which include depression, negative emotions, sexual partners inconsistency, uncertainty and fear. Ejaculation is defined as the sudden expulsion of semen from the erected penis. Ejaculation may be negatively affected by different medications. Occasionally, a situation arises in infertile men when the semen has no sperms. This may man not even notice because most of the secretions are formed only in the prostate. To the prostate come sperms through vas deferens which can be blocked due to its faulty development or after infection. The easiest way to determine if man has sufficient quantity and quality of the sperms, and thus prove his fertility is to make sperm count. Sperm count is a microscopic examination of the semen sample. The amount of sample, the number of spermatozoa and their motility, shape, quality and viscosity is evaluated. If you have any doubts about risks mentioned above and you think this problems of infertility may concern you, do not hesitate to see your doctor immediately. He will give you advice and nowadays a lot of problems can be solved.
Treatment of infertility in men
In the case of varicocele and blocked vas deferens can be infertility in men treated by surgery. When is damage to sperms caused by own immune system, medications that suppress the immune system , called immunosuppressants, are used. However, if the problem is more complex and can not be treated in mentioned ways, it is accessed to the methods of assisted reproduction.