Diabetes mellitus type 2
Diabetes type 2
Diabetes type 2 is a disease, which is recently more and more frequent. About 90% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes worldwide are diabetes type 2 and it primarily affects individuals over 45 years of age. Nowadays, however, this disease occurs also in children and adolescents. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is one of the so-called civilization diseases whose incidence goes hand in hand with prosperity. Therefore, especially in the Euro-American society this is becoming fairly a major problem. It is caused mainly by lack of exercise, poor eating habits, and the resulting overweight.
Causes of diabetes type 2
The nature of diabetes emergence is a relative lack of insulin, a hormone that is responsible for the transfer of glucose from the blood into cells. Unlike in diabetes type 1 the production of insulin in the beta cells is intact, but the rhythm of secretion of this hormone is disturbed, especially after eating. Also in diabetes type 2 is present the so-called insulin resistance, when the sensitivity of tissues to insulin is reduced. Therefore, the blood glucose increases leading to so-called hyperglycemia. The cause of this condition is not fully understood but a crucial role has genetics, improper lifestyle, lack of exercise, obesity and smoking.
Symptoms of diabetes type 2
Diabetes type 2 can be initially asymptomatic and therefore can be discovered accidentally during blood analysis. Generally the symptoms of diabetes include intensified thirst, high fluid intake and frequent urination. It is due to elevated blood sugar that binds water and gets it into the urine. This leads to progressive dehydration of the patient and is accompanied with tiredness and weakness. Further symptoms of diabetes include loss of appetite with subsequent weight loss, vision disorders, or tingling in different parts of the body.
Risk factors of diabetes type 2
In each family, where diabetes occurred, there is a many times increased risk of this disease for other relatives. This means that a significant role in the development of diabetes type 2 has heredity. But the most significant effect has poor lifestyle. Due to that most of these patients have in addition to high blood glucose levels also other disorders, such as elevated blood lipids, uric acid, high blood pressure and obesity. This significantly contributes to the occurrence of complications of diabetes, for example heart attack, where the risk is increased more than tenfold.
Complications of diabetes type 2
As with diabetes type 1 also here we often encounter complications, which can be in some patients the first manifestation of the disease. We distinguish between acute and chronic complications of diabetes type 2.
Acute complications of diabetes type 2
A very serious complication of diabetes type 2 is hyperglycemic coma, which is characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood, dehydration, renal dysfunction and altered consciousness. However this complication begins as weakness, thirst and frequent urination. Since there are also neurological symptoms and impaired consciousness, this condition can be easily confused with a stroke. Hypoglycemic coma is the opposite of the previous complication and arises when glucose levels drop below the bottom threshold. It is manifested with reduced performance, weakness, visual disturbances, or even heart palpitations, tremors, sweating, but also the feeling of hunger.
Chronic complications of diabetes type 2
Among the chronic complications of diabetes type 2 belongs microangiopathy, which is the damage of small arteries and therefore also organs such as the kidneys, retinas of the eyes and the nervous tissue. The kidneys gradually lose their function and the patient's condition can result in dialysis, i.e. replacement with an artificial kidney. Damage of the retina, known as diabetic retinopathy, leads to blurred vision and in the final stages to blindness. Diabetic neuropathy, i.e. damaged nerves, affects most often first the lower and upper extremities. This is like feelings of trembling, tingling, burning, but also pain. Affected can be also the nerves of the spinal cord and organs, which is manifested by abdominal pain and diarrhea.
Another major complication of diabetes mellitus type 2 is called macroangiopathy, which is the damage of large blood vessels by atherosclerotic process, thus popularly known as hardening of the arteries. This process is significantly accelerated in diabetics. These complications often lead to death of patients with diabetes, as ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and stroke develops. In all cases there is lack of blood flow to the tissues. In the lower limbs easily form venous ulcers with possible progression to gangrene and often leading to leg amputation.
Diagnosis of diabetes type 2
The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2 lies in the detection of elevated levels of blood glucose. However, it is imperative that blood taking was performed on an empty stomach. Confirmation of the diagnosis is made by the OGTT test, an oral glucose tolerance test. It consists in blood taking on an empty stomach, subsequent oral administration of glucose and repeated blood collection in 60 and 120 minutes. This will test whether the body is able to maintain normal blood sugar levels after glucose intake.
Treatment of diabetes type 2
Treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 is very difficult and requires the patient's cooperation. However, the patient must remember that this disease must be treated for life. Treatment consists of dietary measures to reduce weight and sufficient exercise. Then are administrated so-called oral antidiabetics in a tablet form. Used is medicine belonging to a group of biguanides and sulfonylureas. Later, it is necessary to add insulin injections.
Prognosis of diabetes type 2
The results for careful following of medical recommendations for diabetes patients are completely demonstrable. Weight reduction is an essential step in the treatment of diabetes. There are also cases where this is almost sufficient for the disease to disappear. Therefore strong commitment and perseverance is important in the treatment of this disease. However the solution is still prevention, so the development of similar problems does not occur.
Prevention of diabetes type 2
Prevention of diabetes type 2 lies mainly in maintaining a healthy lifestyle, i.e. mostly sufficient physical activity and a healthy diet. It means limiting the intake of too fatty foods and increasing the intake of fruits and vegetables. Adequate fluid intake is also necessary. Prevention of the onset of diabetes type 2 also includes no smoking, alcohol abstinence, avoiding excessive stress and maintaining proper body weight.